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Each turn of the Krebs cycle is capable of producing one molecule of guanine triphosphate (GTP), which is easily converted into ATP, and an additional 17 molecules of ATP through the electron transport chain. Carbon dioxide is produced as a waste product during the Krebs cycle and the oxaloacetate produced by one turn of the Kreb’s cycle is combined with another acetyl CoA to begin the process again

Cellular respiration – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
All of the hydrogen molecules which have been removed in the steps before (Krebs cycle, Link reaction) are pumped inside the mitochondria using energy that electrons release. Eventually, the electrons powering the pumping of hydrogen into the mitochondria mix with some hydrogen and oxygen to form water and the hydrogen molecules stop being pumped

Cellular waste product – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It starts along the same pathway as aerobic respiration, but once glucose is converted to pyruvate proceeds down one of two pathways and produces only two molecules of ATP from each molecule of glucose. Aerobic respiration proceeds in a series of steps, which also increases efficiency – since glucose is broken down gradually and ATP is produced as needed, less energy is wasted as heat
1 day ago Where does the aerobic respiration occur in a eukaryotic cell? Aerobic respiration in the cytoplasm with the help of enzymes sequestered there. 6 hr 29 min ago What produces ATP during aerobic respiration and why? Cellular respiration, also known as ‘oxidative metabolism’, is one of the key ways a cell gains..
Glycolysis During glycolysis, the potential energy of a primary foodstuff, glucose, is released during a series of chemical reactions which occur in the cytoplasm. During the process, the coenzymes (NADH + H+ and FADH2) which have accumulated during previous processes transfer hydrogen atoms to components of the electron transport chain

ATP Synthase
In all cases, ATP synthases harness the electrochemical energy from a transmembrane proton or sodium (Na+) gradient to combine ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) to make ATP (Ackerman, Tzagoloff, 2005). Certain mutations in one of these three amino acids can cause complete loss of enzyme function, specifically a change from glutamic acid to leucine or cysteine and a change from histidine to serine, cysteine, leucine, or tyrosine
Because the respiratory pathway is involved in both anabolism and catabolism, it would hence be better to consider the respiratory pathway as an amphibolic pathway rather than as a catabolic one. Pyruvate, which is formed by the glycolytic catabolism of carbohydrates in the cytosol, after it enters mitochondrial matrix undergoes oxidative decarboxylation by a complex set of reactions catalysed by pyruvic dehydrogenase

Prokaryotic Cell Structure – AS Biology
The following table lists parts of a prokaryotic cell – note that this type of cell has no true organelles: Part or Component of Prokaryotic Cell: Notes: 1. As mesosomes are only found in prokaryotic cells and mitochondria only in eukaryotic cells, these structures are sometimes compared when discussing the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Aerobic Cellular Respiration
The electron transport chain consists of several proteins and other compounds that are associated with the inner membrane of mitochondria, or the cell membrane of prokaryotes. Second, it is important to notice that all components of electron transport chains share a common feature – they are all capable of undergoing oxidation and reduction

Cellular Respiration
Because there are a number of enzymes and steps involved in forming porphyrin rings, there are a number of possible points in the process where genetic defects could occur. Out of many possible types of fermentation processes, two of the most common types are lactic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation (other types of fermentation such as methanol fermentation and acetone fermentation also exist)

Cellular Respiration (aerobic and anaerobic respiration)
Organisms that are incapable of further aerobic breakdown of pyruvic acid carry out fermentation to convert the pyruvic acid down into either vinegar (ascetic acid), alcohol (ethanol) or one of many other organic compounds. These steps are very important because superoxides and hydrogen peroxide will combine with proteins or with DNA to disrupt the normal functioning of these molecules
Many organisms (or cells) will use aerobic respiration primarily, however, if there is a limited oxygen supply they can utilize anaerobic respiration for survival. Often the term oxidative phosphorylation is used interchangeably with the electron transport chain; however, oxidative phosphorylation is the series of reaction that takes place during the ETC

Chapter 11 The Diversity of Prokaryotic
Explain why 38 ATPs can be theoretically produced from the oxidation of one molecule of glucose in the prokaryotic cell whereas only 36 ATPs may be produced from the same process in the eukaryotic cell
For example, photoautotrophs utilize the starchy carbohydrates they produce from photosynthesis to provide themselves with the energy to produce new cells, grow, and reproduce. For aerobic respiration the general equation is: C6H1 2O 6 + 6O2 ( 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP (38 in prokaryotes) Glucose oxygen carbon dioxide water energy For alcohol fermentation (a type of anaerobic respiration) the general equation is: C6H1 2O 6 ( 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2 ATP Glucose ethanol carbon dioxide energy The process of aerobic respiration yields a much higher amount of ATP than does anaerobic respiration
Prokaryotic cells – cytoplasm What happens in the krebs cycle? The pyruvic acid reacts with an enzyme that removes a carbon to produce acetyl coenzyme A Where does krebs cycle take place? In the mitochondria In Krebs cycle, enzymes react with the pyruvic acid. Electron transport chain All CR begins with what process? Glycolysis The breakdown of glucose to 2 pyruvic acids is called glycolysis Where does glycolysis take place In the cytoplasm which contains the enzymes necessary for the series of reactions

Anaerobic Respiration – Free DOC downloads
Fermentation: – MDC Faculty Home Pages – Miami Dade College In anaerobic respiration the electrons are transferred from NADH to pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis, to form an acid or alcohol. Cell Respiration and Photosynthesis objectives Define ATP, ADP, autotroph, heterotroph, photosynthesis, cell respiration, energy, cellular respiration, fermentation, anaerobic, aerobic, atom, nucleus, protons, neutrons, electrons, , pH, activation energy, Project1: Automation using Light Sensors Anaerobic respiration is phase 1 and it takes place in the cytoplasm

BIOLOGY 1102 Lecture Notes. Making ATP
In the case of methane producing bacteria, carbon is the final electron acceptor and for the bacteria producing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur is the final acceptor. It was the evolution of this system some 2 billion years ago that began the process by which oxygen is put in our atmosphere, making possible the organic world as we know it

What Is Aerobic Respiration?
Acetyl coA from pyruvate combines with a compound called oxaolacetate to produce citrate, or citric acid, which, in a series of steps involving NAD+, produces ATP as well as NADH and another molecule called FADH2, which has a similar function. At this point in the process, the electrons carried by NADH and FADH2 are used to provide the energy to attach phosphate groups to ADP molecules to produce up to 32 molecules of ATP

This theory is supported by the fact that mitochondria contain DNA and ribosomes that are more like those in prokaryotic bacteria than they are like those in other eukaryotic cells (as you know, mitochondria are only found in eukaryotic cells). Remember the two molecules that were the final product of glycolysis? Well those molecules undergo some changes, and once changed, cellular respiration occurs and a big amount of energy is the result
Between Succinic Acid and Fumaric Acid, the molecular shifting releases not enough energy to make ATP or NADH outright, but instead this energy is captured by a new energy carrier, Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Yeast, when under anaerobic conditions, convert glucose to pyruvic acid via the glycolysis pathways, then go one step farther, converting pyruvic acid into ethanol, a C-2 compound
Discuss the ways in which biosynthesis depends on cell respiration? Biosynthesis depends on cellular respiration for energy in the form of ATP and for carbon skeletons to be used as building blocks during biosynthetic reactions 6. How does the Krebs cycle depend on glycolysis? How does the electron transport chain system depend on the Krebs cycle? The Krebs cycle depends on glycolysis for a supply of pyruvate
Although cellular respiration technically includes both aerobic and anaerobic processes, the term is commonly used to refer only to the aerobic process. The chain is an energy converter that uses the exergonic flow of electrons to pump H+ across the membrane from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space
Where are the hydrogen atoms of glucose at the end of cellular respiration? In cellular respiration, glucose is broken down into prokaryotes, to produce energy, creating ATP
In the process, energy is transferred from the energy rich nutrient molecules to energy rich molecules that can be used directly by the cell to perform work. Citric Acid Cycle (also known as Krebs cycle and tricarboxylic acid cycle) described by Hans Krebs – 1930s If oxygen is present then pyruvate is actively transported into the mitochondrion and oxidation is completed
Anaerobic digesters can also be used effectively for waste management, as the anaerobic respiration that is induced during the digestion process also reduces the emission of harmful gases into our atmosphere. The anaerobic respiration conducted by the cells give rise to lactic acid, a chemical that actually helps in burning our muscles, if we do physical labor for a short time
What evidence exists to support the idea that mitochondria arose in eukaryotic cells through the process of endosymbiosis? Inner membranes of mitochondria contain enzymes and transport systems similar to those found in some prokaryotic cells. How many mitochondria are typically found within a cell? Some cells have one large mitochondrion, but most cells have between 100 and 1000 mitochondria
To get through the process there are eight steps, with eight different enzymes, the end result being a net energy gain of 3 NADH, 1 FADH and 1 ATP (double that for one whole glucose molecule). Link Reaction A cluster of enzymes known as the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex that can be found in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells or the cytosol of prokaryotes, oxidizes the pyruvate into acetyl-CoA and carbon dioxide

bacteriology – How do prokaryotes perform cellular respiration without membrane-bound organelles? – Biology Stack Exchange
This points you to the answer: bacteria produce ATPs the same way mitochondria do, with the oxidation machinery place in their plasma membrane (analogous to the mitochondrial membrane)

In Eukaryotic Cells
STAGE 1 – Cellular Respiration BEGINS with a Biochemical Pathway called GLYCOLYSIS, that takes place in the Cells Cytosol, YIELDS a relatively Small amount of ATP and does not require oxygen. THE ENERGETIC ELECTRONS IN THE MOLECULES OF NADH AND FADH2 THAT ARE FORMED DURING THE KREBS CYCLE ARE USED TO MAKE ATP IN A SERIES OF REACTIONS KNOWN AS THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN