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cellular respiration – Where is the line between Anaerobic and Aerobic? – Biology Stack Exchange
Any introductory microbiology textbook will cover these concepts in detail, because they are important to understanding the metabolic diversity of bacteria. In respiration, the electron acceptor is inorganic — oxygen for aerobic respiration or an inorganic molecule such as sulfate or nitrate for anaerobic respiration

A complete citric acid cycle in assimilatory metabolism of Pelobacter acidigallici, a strictly anaerobic, fermenting bacterium
In this study we demonstrate the presence of all enzymes necessary to operate a modified citric acid cycle, with activities sufficient to support growth
Does it matter in which order the substrates bind? Why? Answer: Yes, because binding of oxaloacetate induces a conformational change that creates the binding site for acetyl CoA. What is the purpose of this pathway? What controls which pathway will be used? Answer: The glyoxylate cycle of plants and bacteria allows them to grow on e.g

The evolution of biochemical pathways on the example of the citric acid cycle – Maren Emmerich – Google Books
But what do we call life? Even if the origin of complex organic substances from methane, ammonium, water and hydrogen in the early earth atmosphere did not lead to the origin of living organisms directly, these events unquestionably represented milestones along this path since from these substances, of which amino acids were a very great part, the formation of nucleotides and ribonucleic acid was only one small step ahead. Scientists have not started to address these fundamental questions until much more than 100 years ago and are far from being able to explain why these processes happened and are still going on, but considerable progress has undoubtedly been made in understanding how what we call life developed
There are, at least, five additional carbon fixation pathways known to exist in autotrophic bacteria and archaea, which differ in reducing compounds, energy source, and oxygen sensitivity of enzymes. In one complete turn of this cycle, four molecules of CO2 are fixed by the enzymes that are sensitive to oxygen, resulting in the production of one molecule of oxaloacetate, which is itself an intermediate of the cycle
Consequently, NAD cannot be produced, thereby causing glycolysis to produce lactic acid instead of pyruvate, which is a necessary component of the Krebs Cycle. The process requires the use of two ATP molecules, but as glucose is broken down from a six-carbon sugar molecule into two three-carbon sugar molecules, four ATP and two NADH molecules are created

Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration is therefore a process in which the energy in glucose is transferred to ATP.In respiration, glucose is oxidized and thus releases energy. Cells without oxygen available need to regenerate NAD+ from NADH so that in the absence of oxygen, at least some ATP can be made by glycolysis.To regenerate NAD+ from NADH, the electrons from NADH are added to pyruvate to produce alcohol (plants, yeast) or lactate (animals, bacteria).The total ATP yield of fermentation comes from glycolysis; 2 ATP molecules are produced per glucose

SparkNotes: SAT Subject Test: Biology: Cell Respiration
Alcoholic Fermentation Another route to NAD+ produces alcohol (ethanol) as a by-product: pyruvate + NADHethyl alcohol + NAD+ + CO2 Alcoholic fermentation is the source of ethyl alcohol present in wines and liquors. The Krebs cycle is called a cycle because one of the molecules it starts with, the four-carbon oxaloacetate, is regenerated by the end of the cycle to start the cycle over again

Carbon Fixation in Phototrophs
Based on sequence analysis, this rubisco is highly divergent from both bacterial forms of the enzyme Rubisco activity had been reported from archaea prior to the genome work, but these reports were not widely heeded

Chapter Quiz
Please change your browser preferences to enable javascript, and reload this page.Chapter Quiz(See related pages)Your Results: The correct answer for each question is indicated by a

Major roles of isocitrate lyase and malate synthase in bacterial and fungal pathogenesis
equi uses acetate (Kelly et al., 2002) and probably lipids as carbon sources in soil and within macrophages suggests that it may utilize the glyoxylate cycle in its interaction with foals. Studies in vitro show that MS is secreted and enhances the adherence of the pathogen to lung epithelial cells, supporting the notion that it may function as an adhesin as well as an enzyme (Kinhikar et al., 2006)

Bacterial Metabolism – Medical Microbiology – NCBI Bookshelf
Bacteria requiring one of these compounds for anaerobic growth are said to be anaerobic respirers.A large group of anaerobic respirers are the nitrate reducers (Table 4-6). Many autotrophs will not grow on media that contain organic matter, even agar.Table 4-5Inorganic Oxidation Reactions Used by Autotrophic Bacteria as Energy Sources

Citric Acid Cycle – Overview of the Citric Acid Cycle
Narayanese, The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, is a series of chemical reactions in the cell that breaks down food molecules into carbon dioxide, water, and energy

Test Your Knowledge! – Shmoop Biology
The correct answer is (C).Although we started with pyruvate, it was converted to acetyl-CoA in the transition, or bridge step, before entering the citric acid cycle.2. The correct answer is (E).These two compounds will donate their electrons to the electron transport chain, making a gradient of protons that will power ATP synthesis.4
Malic acid is converted to oxaloacetic acid, which, in turn, reacts with yet another molecule of acetyl CoA, thus producing citric acid, and the cycle begins again. The reactions are seen to comprise a cycle inasmuch as citric acid is both the first product and the final reactant, being regenerated at the conclusion of one complete set of chemical rearrangements

Carbohydrate Catabolism
Explain why 38 ATPs can be produced from the oxidation of one molecule of glucose in a prokaryotic cell whereas only 36 ATPs are produced from the same process in a eukaryotic cell

Citric acid cycle – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Reactions that form intermediates of the TCA cycle in order to replenish them (especially during the scarcity of the intermediates) are called anaplerotic reactions. In many tissues, especially heart tissue, fatty acids are broken down through a process known as beta oxidation, which results in acetyl-CoA, which can be used in the citric acid cycle
Bisson) that has WAY more information that you’d ever want to know about the specific processes involved, their effect on wine, and which groups of bacteria are involved. Eukaryotes do not use malolactic fermentation as a form of respiration, but they do use other types of fermentation — lactic acid fermentation, for example
What wavelengths of visible light are being absorbed by this pigment? A) red and yellow B) blue and violet C) green and yellow D) blue, green, and red E) green, blue, and yellowAnswer: EHalobacterium has a photosynthetic membrane that is colored purple. E) The number of bacteria would decrease due to a decrease in the temperature of the water.Answer: CA spaceship is designed to support animal life for a multiyear voyage to the outer planets of the solar system
Glycolysis During glycolysis, the potential energy of a primary foodstuff, glucose, is released during a series of chemical reactions which occur in the cytoplasm. During the process, the coenzymes (NADH + H+ and FADH2) which have accumulated during previous processes transfer hydrogen atoms to components of the electron transport chain

Essay Collection: Bio quiz
The electron transport chain 9) What are the steps of anaerobic respiration, and write the number of ATP produced at each? I am not sure about this question
It seems natural for us to think about cellular respiration in the context of our own mammalian bodies, but to understand respiration in a larger context, it is necessary to step back and consider plants, fungi, and cellular microbes. As the electrons are moving through the ETC from one cytochrome complex to the next, protons are being pumped from the matrix to the inter-membrane space
12-16a, Lodish) Transfer of electrons from succinate, an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, also results in a H+ being pumped across the inner membrane. Proteins like cytochrome and components of the ATP synthase are coded for by the mitochondrial DNA and might have had some function in bacteria before they became endosymbionts of eukaryotic cells